roof insulation types for any homes

Various materials are available for roof insulation. Talk to an ironmonger who stocks a good range, and ask his advice about how much will be needed for your home. Take along rough measurements of your loft-you can measure the ground floor from front to back and side to side as a guide. Arrange to have the packs of insulation on a sale or return basis it is far better to have too many packs and have to return one than to take too few, and have to finish the job another day. Insulating the loft is a job which most people can accomplish quite easily, but it is not a comfortable job, and may involve crouching and bending to reach the furthermost points of the sloping roof. Use a short length of board to balance between the joists, so that you have somewhere to kneel. Never tread in the space between the joists.

Wear your oldest clothes, most lofts are extremely dusty. If you are allergic to dust, wear an improvised smog mask, made from gauze, or a handkerchief. Some form of lighting is necessary if you have no light in the loft, borrow f buy a electric lamp holder on a long flex, which can be plugged in to a light-socket outside the loft. If the entrance to your loft is small, be sure to choose a form of insulation which you will be able to get into your loft. For loft insulation you have the following materials to choose from: Loosefill Granules or pellets of vermiculite, loose mineral wool or glass wool. Loosefill is fairly easy to put down you buy it in bags and pour the granules or pack the loose material into the space between the joists of the loft to a depth of two inches. That’s not as difficult to judge as it may sound, as you use a specially shaped piece of cardboard or wood to level off to the correct depth.

wool blanket roof insulationFibreglass or mineral wool blanket
This is an excellent insulation material, especially if the house is not your own property, as you can simply roll it up and take it with you when you move. The blanket is usually 1-inch thick, though it is also available in 2- to 4-inch thicknesses, giving of course, even better thermal insulation. To lay insulating blanket you unroll it between the joists, tucking any extra width up each side of the joists. It’s a good idea, if you are intending to buy insulating blanket, to first have a look at your loft and measure the distance between the joists. If the joists are set at irregular widths, as may be the case with some older houses, you would be better advised to use one of the loosefills. It is essential that you wear old gloves when you lay fibreglass, otherwise minute fragments of glass may penetrate the skin and produce a most uncomfortable effect.

 

aluminium foil roof insulationAluminium foil
This involves putting down a layer of thin crumpled foil between all the joists, and then tacking a second layer of reinforced foil over the top of the joists, sealing all the spaces. This method may take longer, and if you will be going up into the loft occasionally and stepping across the joists, it may prove too fragile. If you use the loft as an extra room and have close-boarded the Hoor, you can still insulate the roof. Use either insulating boards, nailed to the rafters and then painted, or reinforced aluminium foil, also tacked to the rafters. There is another method of roof insulation by the use of expanded polystyrene, applied in liquid form. But this is not something you can do yourself.

rain gutter repair | leaks and overflow

Various rain gutter repair problems can develop with a rainwater disposal system. These are the more common ones. Overflowing gutters One of the commonest reasons a gutter overflows is that it has become blocked, perhaps by dirt, leaves (in the autumn) or a bird‘s nest (in spring). The solutions is straight forward   look for and clear the blockages. If the gutter is of cast iron, clear it with a garden trowel  its rounded shape will fit the inside of the gutters better than a bricklayer’s trowel. For plastic gutters, make a half-round scoop in hardboard. lf you are working near the outlet to a downpipe, block it off with a rag bung to prevent debris falling down to cause a blockage there.

rain gutter repair - leaks and overflow  Scoop out the blockage from the gutter, and shovel it into a bucket suspended from one of your ladder rungs. Flush the rain gutter repair system through with buckets of cold water, and then clean out the insides of the gutters with an old brush or a cloth. There is not much you can do to prevent a recurrence of the trouble. Atmospheric dirt will fall on the roof and, during a downpour, wash down into the gutters. If the house is surrounded by trees, however, it might be worth fitting netting on top of the gutters, to keep out falling leaves. Another possible cause of an overflow is that a section of the gutter may have sagged, making it lower than the top of the downpipe, so that water cannot flow away. A pool of water in the gutter at one place is often a sign that the gutter is sagging there. On iron gutters, try to bend the brackets upwards to restore the correct slope. Otherwise drive small wooden wedges between the bracket and the guttering to achieve the same effect. Fill the gap with the aid of a glass fibre repair kit if you wish. Take care not to flex cast-iron guttering by more than about 25 mm, or you risk breaking the seal at the joints.  With plastic guttering, it is usually better to re-fix the brackets slightly higher up.

Make sure you plug up the old screw holes to stop moisture entering the wood. In either case, a new bracket might be necessary. Leaking joints Water may be escaping where two lengths of guttering join. Sections of cast—iron guttering overlap each other slightly, and are fastened together by a nut and bolt, the joint being sealed by a waterproof mastic. The joint can deteriorate because of age or movement. lf it has, it will have to be remade from scratch. Begin by unfastening the nut and bolt. That will not be easy because they would have corroded. Try to tree them with penetrating oil, but usually you will have to out through the bolt with a hacksaw, and perhaps drill out the remains of it. Sometimes you can knock out the stub of the bolt with a hammer. but be careful not to strike the iron with too much force, for it can shatter dangerously. Lever the two sections apart, using an old chisel or screwdriver, and scrape away all the old sealant, cleaning up finally with a wire brush. Apply a bed of sealant to the lower of the two overlaps, bring both together and fit a new nut and bolt, with a washer on each side. Wipe up any sealant that oozes out. Treat the inside of the joint, or even a longer stretch of the gutter if need be, with a bituminous sealer. Plastic sections lock together in various ways, according to brand. Some have a self-locking seal; others are welded together by solvents. Examine their joint to determine the method of sealing. Renew a failed seal with non-setting mastic, or apply fresh solvent to a loom, welded joint.   leaks in gutters The middle of a section of plastic gutter is unlikely to leak unless it has been damaged physically. Mid-section leaks usually occur on cast iron when the metal has rusted through. What you do about it depends on the extent of the damage.

Rain gutter repair can be carried out with waterproof tape, or even a glass fibre repair kit. Such a leak, however, might indicate extensive rusting and that complete replacement of the section is required.  Damaged guttering can be replaced with a plastic section, even if the existing gutters are of cast iron Remove the defective section of guttering by dismantling the joints as explained above. lf it is cast iron, take care bow you get it to the ground. lt can easily shatter, causing dangerous fragments to fly everywhere. Either fasten a rope to it and lower it gently, or carry it down. Always keep children and pets well out of the way when you are taking down old cast-iron rainwater goods. New plastic guttering can be cut to the correct length, if necessary, using a sharp fine-toothed saw, such as a hacksaw or carpenters panel saw.  Adapter joints can be bought to connect plastic to cast- iron guttering. Since your present gutter is defective, it is likely that the brackets need replacing too. Buy new ones and fix them at the spacings recommended by the manufacturer.   Supplier should have leaflets giving such information.

rain gutter installation guide and instruction

A manual containing detailed rain gutter installation guide and instruction can be obtained from a supplier or manufacturer. The general procedure is to install the gutters first — all else will be governed by the position of the outlets to the downpipes. To pinpoint this position, drop a plumb line from the gutter to the drain outlet at ground level. Then mark on the fascia the centre of the position for the outlet. At the end of the run, fix a bracket to support the guttering as close as possible to the underside of the felt projecting from beneath the tiles or, if felt is not fitted, as close to the tiles as possible. Tie string to this bracket and stretch it taut to the position of the outlet. Use a spirit level to ensure that the string is level, then slant the string to give the correct fall. Rain gutter installation guide and instruction will be specified by the manufacturer, but it should be about 5 mm for every metre of gutter run. Mark the position and fit the brackets to support the outlet. Now fit all the other brackets in that run.

rain gutter installation guide and instructionTwo brackets are usually needed for the outlet, plus one at each join and at the spacing recommended by the manufacturer, which is likely to be one bracket about every metre. Use the string, tied taut to a bracket at each end of the run. as a guide to setting all the intermediate brackets at the correct height, and mark the positions at the correct spacing on the fascia. Use non-rusting screws for the fixings. The brackets are normally screwed to the fascia, but if there is none, brackets for screwing to rafters can be bought. Now fit the gutter to the brackets. Use a sharp, finetoothed saw (a hack saw or a carpenter’s panel saw) to cut standard lengths to size. The gutter should be cut squarely across its length. To ensure this, place it upside down on the bench and drape a sheet of newspaper over it. Bring the two edges of the newpaper together, and use the side of it as a guide for the saw, or draw a guide line next to the newspaper. Remove the swarf with a medium-grade file. Fit the gutter to the stop end and outlet. On some brands this is done with clips; others use a sealing device, or solvent welding. lf two lengths are to be joined to make a run of suitable length, follow the manufacturer’s rain gutter installation guide and instruction. Leave gaps within the joints to allow for expansion or contraction during hot or cold weather.

When all the gutters are in position, install the downpipes. These are usually assembled from one or more standard lengths and are cut to size. As with the gutters leave expansion gaps. The pipes are held to the wall by clips. Place a clip at each join, where provision will be made for the expansion gap, and at intervals as recommended by the manufacturer — probably every 2m (6 ft or so). There is no need to drill into brickwork to make the fixings. The weight they carry is minimal, so fixings into mortar joints are adequate. Cut the pipes to lengths that allow such a fixing. Cut the pipes as described for gutters. Do not seal the joints: should a blockage occur later, water issuing from a joint helps to detect its position. To take the pipes under the eaves, you need an offset or ‘swan’s neck’. Either buy one or make it from an offcut of pipe, an offset socket and an offset spigot. Seal also the joint between the gutter outlet and the offset socket, but not that between the spigot and the rest of the downpipe.

Joints in pipes that are not vertical should be sealed, otherwise water will pour out of them regardless of whether there is a blockage farther along, Position the fixing clips so that the main runs of the pipe are vertical. When the clip holding the offset spigot is in place, drop a plumb line from it to help you mark on the wall an accurate position for the clips lower down.  lf the downpipes discharge into an open gully, install a shoe at the bottom (a clip will be needed here, too) pointing away from the house wall and no higher that 50mm above the grating of the gully. This ensures that water will enter the shoe and not splash up against the house wall. lf an adaptor is needed for a direct connection to the drain, buy one from a supplier’s catalogue. As a final check, pour a bucket or two of water in the gutters at the highest point to make sure everything is functioning correctly.

instant hot water heaters system

instant hot water heaters systemThe instant hot water heaters system is very common in modern homes because it makes use of the boiler that is necessary to heat water for radiators, however, there is an a1ternative form of instant hot water heaters system like the space-heating one, the hot water supply may be of the instant type. With such a heater, which can work off gas or electricity, no hot water is stored and there is, therefore no hot cylinder. Instead, the gas jets or electric elements come into play only when you turn on the tap and water passes across them. Instantaneous heaters may be multipoint, with one heater sewing the entire house. Or they can be single point, placed over a sink, washbasin or bath, for instance. Such tank less instant hot water heaters system are usually installed in conversion and modernization schemes because they simplify, and therefore usually reduce, installation costs, and because they are space saving one heater takes the place of a boiler and hot water cylinder. They can also save money in operating costs, because you heat up only as much water as you need; and they have the further advantage that they can supply unlimited hot water, whereas a hot tank once emptied of hot water takes time to reheat. In a home with this type of system it is often the case that all cold outlets are fed directly from the rising main, so that a cold storage tank will not need to be installed either.  You should aim to get to know the plumbing system of your home, so that you will be ready to deal with emergencies. Try to trace the run of the pipes from the point at which the rising main starts. And, with the boiler or other water heater shut off, turn off one at a time any stop taps you come across. Then turn on the taps and flush the lavatories to determine which outlets are controlled by each stop tap. So, Instant hot water heaters system without tank, boiler and cylinder is overall better for any homes. Because it offer more benefits that cover the disadvantages.

waterproofing basement walls

Penetrating damp is caused by water entering through defects in the structure of the house. The way to prevent and cure it is through a high standard of house maintenance. Keep the roof sound, and maintain the walls as described in this chapter. Repoint when it becomes necessary, and reined any defects in rendered walls. Seal any gaps between window and door frames and the walls with a proprietary sealant; keep gutters and downpipes clear of blockages; deal immediately with any plumbing mishaps that soak a wall; and apply an exterior grade si1icone based water repellent to porous walls. Damp in basements is common because they are below ground level and are surrounded by soil, in which damp is present. There is no practical way to eliminate damp from basement walls, but you can keep the damp at bay.

Prepare the walls by mixing a polythene sheet to them or by applying a damp-repellent liquid. Then fix bitumen lath to the walls with galvanized clout nails. Bitumen lath is a pitch-impregnated corrugated libre. The corrugations create channels on both sides of the material: thaw on the wall side form ventilation corridors in which the mist Can evaporate. Those on the room Side provide a receive plaster. Plasterboard can be used by do-it-yourselfers instead of plaster.  Another possibility is to build a partition wall clad with plasterboard close to but not touching the main wall of the basement, creating in effect a cavity wall, Normally the framework for a plasterboard partition is screwed to the wall, but for damp-proofing it should be fixed to the ceiling and floor, in the way outlined on page 126 for constructing a non-load bearing partition. It is a good idea to fit insulation blanket (of the kind used to line a loft) behind the plasterboard, so that the basement will be warm as well as dry. The floor of the basement will also need a damp proof membrane (such as clear polythene) to stop damp from rising through the floor. Overlap the membrane and the damp proof treatment on the walls.