butt hinges | door hinges

The position of the previous butt hinges on the door frame will determine exactly where the new ones should be fixed on the replacement door. Assuming that the old hinges worked satisfactorily and fit new ones of exactly the same size so that they will fill the recess neatly. If however, you have replaced the doorway lining of the door frame, or you are hanging the door in a new site, there will be no hinges to guide you. Note then that you need three 100mm butt hinges. The top one should be placed a distance of one and a half times its length from the top of the door. The bottom one should be one and a half times its length, plus 50 mm from the bottom edge. If both hinges were sited at equal distance from the edges, the bottom one would appear to be lower down than it actually is. The middle butt hinge should be halfway between the top and bottom ones. To cut a recess for a hinge, place the door on edge on the floor. Have it held steady, preferably using a vice. Determine the distance of the first hinge from the top or bottom of the door, and mark the spot on the door in pencil. At this point draw a line across the edge, try using a try-square so that it is truly square to the face of the door.

Draw a similar line, with the aid of the square, the length of the hinge away from the first. Now set a marking gauge to the width of one leaf of the hinge. Mark a line this distance away from the closing face of the door. The knuckle of the hinge, when closed, should be just clear of the door face. Next, set the gauge to the thickness of one leaf of the hinge, and mark this on the face of the door. Make a saw cut, using a small tendon or dovetail saw, along the top and bottom lines, down to the thickness line on the face. Chop out the recess with a chisel and hammer. Make a series of chisel cuts, 3mm apart, to the depth of the line on the door face and parallel to the saw lines on the edge. Clean out the waste with the chisel, working from the front edge. Position the hinge leaf in the recess, to check that it is a good lit, and that it lies flat. The door will not close properly otherwise. Make any adjustments needed. If the butt hinge is proud of the recess, shave off a little more timber with the chisel. If it is sunk too deep, pack it out with card. Drill pilot holes for the fixing screws, and screw the hinge into place, taking care to position it accurately. Some hinges are pre-packed complete with fixing screws. If yours are not, test the gauge of screw required by test-pushing a screw into the hole. Use 25mm screws. Fix the other butt hinges in the same way, and then hang the door. Recesses for a hinge in the frame are cut in much the same way. The work will be more difficult because of the awkward working position, so take extra care to ensure accuracy.

security door locks | door security devices

One of the most important functions of an external security door locks is that it should keep out burglars. In fact, the most popular point of entry for housebreakers is through a window, but it is still good sense to make it as difficult as possible for them to walk through a door. One of the most common security door locks devices for external doors is a night latch. Most people would refer to it as a lock, but there is a difference: both locks and latches have a bolt, but a latch bolt is sprung so it closes automatically. To open the latch, you turn a handle inside or a key outside. A lock can be closed or opened only by a key. A lock or latch that is actually housed in a hole cut in the body of the door is known as a mortise lock or latch. If it is fitted on the surface of the door, it is called a rim lock, or latch. A night latch is a rim latch. It is fixed to the back of the door, and the keep into which its bolt locates is fitted to the back of the frame.

Security Door Lock This latch is the easiest of all security devices to force. Although it has a catch to prevent the bolt from moving, the only value of this is to stop the latch from closing and locking you out if, for instance, you go outside for a moment without your keys. It is useful to have a latch on an external door. When you are at home, it keeps the door closed without your having to lock it, but when you go out you need greater security. Some security door locks like night latches can be deadlocked both from inside and out. These are more secure than the simple latch, but they are no substitute for a mortise lock on external doors. When you are out the only protection for the door by which you have left is the lock you close with a key as you go, so make sure it is a good one. Buy a good quality mortise lock, with five levers and steel roll bars inside the bolt, so that it cannot be sawn through. If your home has two external doors, the back door can have bolts instead of, or in addition to, a mortise lock. If you fit it with both, it will be more secure than the front door. This can be an advantage because usually the back of a house is more vulnerable, as a burglar at work will be less visible there than at the front. Cheap barrel bolts that have the staple (the part into which the bolt locates) fitted to the inside face of the frame are not very secure, for a door held by these can be pushed in. It is much safer to fit bolts with staples in a hole bored into the side of the frame.

Better still, fit mortise bolts, which are like simplified mortise locks. It is not just at the lock edge that a door needs protection. It is just as vulnerable to a determined thief along the hinge edge. If the hinges are weak or not securely screwed in place, they can easily be broken off, if forced. So replace any security door locks that are in doubtful condition, and insert longer screws instead of the existing ones. Another way to strengthen the hinge side of the door is to fit bolts there, making it less easy to force the hinges. These are variously known as hinge, stud, or dog bolts. They are fixed to the frame, and locate in holes bored in the door when it is closed. You can also fit a spy hole as a means of checking on the identity of callers before you open the door. Alternatively, you can light a door chain. Another worthwhile door security device is some strong, wide metal trim around the letter plate, to prevent a determined thief from trying to saw the door in half.

night latch | security door locks

Night Latch door lockA night latch security door locks consists of a cylinder barrel, into which the key fits, and a latch case, mounted on a back plate on the inside of the door.To fit one of these latches you need to drill a hole through the door of sufficient diameter to take the cylinder barrel. Start drilling from the front of the door, using a brace and bit. The hole will probably need to be about 38mm in diameter and should be positioned so that the connecting bar of the cylinder locates correctly into the latch case. The dimension for aligning both part of the door lock are usually given with the fitting instructions. The connecting bar will also have to be cut to a length to suit the thickness of the door. The cylinder passes through the latch pull, a surround that incorporates a small handle with which you can pull the door closed. Screw the back plate into place on the inside of the door, aligning the hole in the plate with the hole in the door. Cut the connecting bar so that it protrudes about 13mm on the inside of the door into the latch case. Screw the latch case to the cylinder. Shut the door and slide the keep on to the night latch. Mark the position of the keep on to the frame, and then chisel out a small recess so that the edge of the keep fits flush. Fix the keep with screws.

mortise lock | door lockset

mortise lockĀ 

mortiselockA mortise lock should be fitted to an external door to make it more secure. If the lock is to be fitted on an existing door, there is no need to remove the door from its hinges. Should the door be new, however, fit the lock before hanging it. The striking plate, which receives the lock bolt, cannot be fitted to the frame until the door has been hung. In a paneled door the lock is fitted at the level of the lock rail; in a flush door it goes into the lock block, which is usually higher than a lock rail. Determine the position of the lock, and hold the casing on the front edge of the door. Mark the top and bottom lines of the mortise lock to be cut for the lock. Push a pencil through the keyhole of the lock, to mark on the face of the door where the keyhole of the door has to be cut. Using a tri-square, draw a pencil line on the stile edge, at right angles to the edge of the door, to mark the top and bottom of the mortise. To ensure that the mortise lock will be positioned centrally, measure the thickness of the door, and subtract from this the thickness of the lock. Set a marking gauge to half the remaining thickness, and use it to mark lines from both the inside and outside faces of the door to complete the outline of the mortise.

The easiest way to cut out the mortise for the lockset replacement is to bore a series of holes with a brace and bit, the diameter of which equals the thickness of the lock. The depth of the holes should be the same as that of the lock casing. Make sure that the brace is held square to the work. Clean out the mortise with a chisel, and push the lock casing into it to test that it is a good lit. If the lit is bad, withdraw the casing and examine it. Scratches in its paintwork and paint marks on the inside of the mortise lock will show where the mortise needs to be eased off slightly. Push the casing into the mortise once again, and then draw a line on the door edge around the face plate.

Using a chisel, pare out a recess in the edge to take the face plate and the cover plate. When fitted, the cover plate must be flush with the stile edge. Since the closing edge of the door is usually slightly beveled off, to allow it to enter the frame more snugly, the recess for the cover plate will need to be a little deeper along that edge. Make the hole for the key; drill the top half, then complete the lower half with a pad saw. Neaten the keyhole by screwing an escutcheon plate (a small metal surround) on each side of the door. A small pivoted cover may be incorporated on both plates, or merely on the one intended for inside. Now fit the striking plate to the door frame. To do this, close the door and turn the mortise lock with the key. A slight force on the key will cause the position of the bolt to be imprinted on the door frame. If the mark is not clear, try pushing a sheet of carbon paper between door and frame, or smearing a little paint on the end of the lock bolt.

Hold the striking plate on the frame, position its hole directly over the mark of the bolt, then draw on the frame the position of this hole and of the entire plate. Chisel out a mortise lock to take the bolt and a recess for the plate. Screw the plate into position Test that the lock works properly. If the bolt does not enter the hole in the striking plate easily, you might be able to enlarge the hole slightly with a metal file. Otherwise, the plate may have to be repositioned. Marks on the sides, top or bottom of the bolt and hole will show where the bolt is binding.